Rachel M. Germain, Simon P. Hart, Martin M. Turcotte, Sarah P. Otto, Jawad Sakarchi, Jonathan Rolland,Takuji Usui, Amy L. Angert, Dolph Schluter, Ronald D. Bassar, Mia T. Waters, Francisco Henao-Diaz, Adam M. Siepielski. 2020. On the Origin of Coexisting Species. Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Speciation is frequently initiated but rarely completed, a phenomenon hypothesized to arise due to the failure of nascent lineages to persist. Although a failure to persist often has ecological causes, key gaps exist between ecological and evolutionary theories that, if filled, would clarify when and why speciation succeeds or fails. Here, we apply ecological coexistence theory to show how the alignment between different forms of niche opportunity and niche use shape the initiation, progression, and completion of speciation. Niche evolution may drive coexistence or competitive exclusion, and an ability to coexist ecologically may help or hinder speciation. Our perspective allows progress towards unifying the origin and maintenance of species diversity across the tree of life.