Fig. 1: A conceptual framework to describe how climate drivers propagate through social–ecological systems to impact human–wildlife conflicts. Arrows indicate directions of influence. A prerequisite for any human–wildlife conflict to arise is the co-occurrence of wildlife and human activities, the patterns of which are indirectly and directly shaped by social, ecological and climate drivers. a, Climate drivers, such as ambient temperature or rainfall, drive changes in the availability of resources such as food or habitat. b, Altered resource availability and other ecological changes can modify patterns of animal behaviour, distributions or demography and influence where and how people choose to work, live and recreate. Climate drivers can also elicit direct responses from people and wildlife, unmediated by ecological changes. c–f, Such responses by animals (c) or people (d) can increase or alter interactions (e) that lead to negative outcomes (f). The dashed line demonstrates one of many potential feedbacks between diagram components.
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Briana Abrahms, Neil H. Carter, T. J. Clark-Wolf, Kaitlyn M. Gaynor, Erik Johansson, Alex McInturff, Anna C. Nisi, Kasim Rafiq & Leigh West. 2023. Climate change as a global amplifier of human–wildlife conflict
Climate change and human–wildlife conflict are both pressing challenges for biodiversity conservation and human well-being in the Anthropocene. Climate change is a critical yet underappreciated amplifier of human–wildlife conflict, as it exacerbates resource scarcity, alters human and animal behaviours and distributions, and increases human–wildlife encounters. We synthesize evidence of climate-driven conflicts occurring among ten taxonomic orders, on six continents and in all five oceans. Such conflicts disrupt both subsistence livelihoods and industrial economies and may accelerate the rate at which human–wildlife conflict drives wildlife declines. We introduce a framework describing distinct environmental, ecological and sociopolitical pathways through which climate variability and change percolate via complex social–ecological systems to influence patterns and outcomes of human–wildlife interactions. Identifying these pathways allows for developing mitigation strategies and proactive policies to limit the impacts of human–wildlife conflict on biodiversity conservation and human well-being in a changing climate